Sunday, March 19, 2017

Krashen Santa Fe 2: some reseaerch, intermediate methods


APPLICATION TO LANGUAGE TEACHING

Role of the class: The role of the class: DEVELOP INTERMEDIATES
Class is ideal for beginners!  Outside world reluctant to provide comprehensible input to beginners.
A universal theory of education: Prepare you for the outside world.

Beginning level:
Methods
TPR: Total Physical Response (Asher): Website: http://www.tpr-world.com/
Natural Approach (Terrell)
TPRS (Teaching Proficiency through Reading and Storytelling; Blaine Ray) Websites: www.blaineraytprs.com; http://www.fluencyfast.com/; http://www.comprehensibleinput.com  tprstorytelling.com
Storylistening (benikomason.net)

Underlying principles
class: filled with comprehensible input
organized, but not around points of grammar: activities that students will find comprehensible & interesting (compelling)
speech not forced but encouraged (indirect contribution)
grammar: not for children, as linguistics, for editing

Research: CI wins in method comparisons

The Power of Stories
I. power of read-alouds, without frills:
A.    children read to regularly make superior gains in reading comprehension, vocabulary, listening comprehension (Bus, Van Ijzendoorn, Marinus, and Pellegrini 1995; Block 1999; Denton and West, 2002).
Reach out and Read: in clinic waiting rooms in high poverty areas. free book; very modest treatment, staff demonstrates in waiting room, physician gives a book
Typical results: Mendelsohn et. al. age 4, 3 years of ROR; average of (only) three appointments, avg of 4 books received, vocabulary acquisition

Expressive
Receptive
Comparison
80.9
85.2
ROR
85.2
93.7
national norm
100
100
Gap
19.9
14.8
% gap closed
4.3/19.9=22%
8.5/14.8=57%
Means adjusted for differences between the groups, e.g. mother's education, language spoken in the home, homelessness, preschool attendance, child's age.
Comparison n = 49; ROR = 73; Test scores standardized for age (100 = 50th percentile).

B. Read-alouds are pleasant: Vast majority of children say that they enjoy being read to (Walker and Kuerbtiz, 1979; Mason and Blanton, 1971; Wells, 1985; Senechal et. al. 1996.).
C. Encourages reading, which in turn promotes literacy development. The title of Brassell’s paper:“Sixteen books went home tonight: Fifteen were introduced by the teacher.”

Comprehnsion-based second.foreign language teachimg methods
Communicative tests: CI much better.  Grammar tests: CI better or no diff.

Isik (2000: ITL: Rev of Applied Linguistics) High school EFL in Turkey, intermediates; 29 hours per week, 36 weeks:
CI = Communication-based, minimal correction, graded readers, 75% CI, 25% grammar.
Grammar = 24 hrs/week form-based, 20% CI, 80% grammar

comprehensible input
Grammar
Oxford grammar test
67.6 (5.0)
45.6 (9.6)
Reading
22.25 (1.07)
14.5 (4.26)
Listening compr.
24.9 (2.29)
17.5 (3.3)
Writing
19.4 (2.6)
7.5 (3.3)



The rise of TPRS (Blaine Ray) -  stories, personalization, graded readers
Varguez (2009: IJFLT.com)  Beginning Spanish in high school in US
TPRS significantly better than comparisons (t = 10.56, p < .0001).
Low SES TPRS class =comparisons. (Had TPRS teacher for part of year)
group
N
mean (sd)
TPRS
22
32 (4.7)
TPRS low SES
13
22.3 (38.2)
Comp
48
23.45 (21.2)
Measure: combination of listening and reading

Comprehension-based methods have never lost Posted at: http://skrashen.blogspot.com/2014/08/comprensible-input-based-methods-vs.html
Also: Students in CI-based classes more likely to continue.

Limit: only “conversational language,” not “academic language”

Intermediate methods: 
Sheltered subject matter teaching: based on comprehensible input
Characteristics: (1) intermediates only (2) focus on subject-matter, not language (If a test, the test is on subject matter)/
Research: When compared to intermediate foreign language classes: (1) as much or more language development (2) subject matter knowledge at the same time (3) academic language acquisition
The first one: Edwards, H., Wesche, M., Krashen, S., Clement, R., and Kruidenier, B. 1984. Second language acquisition through a subject-matter learning: A study of sheltered psychology classes at the University of Ottawa. Canadian Modern Language Review 41: 268-282.

THE POWER OF READING: Free Voluntary Reading: source of reading ability, writing style, vocabulary, spelling, complex grammar

Overwhelming case for reading:
Sustained silent reading (SSR)

The Fiji Island study (RRQ, 1983): Elley & Mangubhai: gains in RC
Grade
ALM
SSR
Big Books
4
6.5
15
15
5
2.5
9
15
year 2: larger differences, readers better in writing, listening and grammar

Case histories:
Goeffrey Canada: "I loved reading, and my mother, who read voraciously too, allowed me to have her novels after she finished them. My strong reading background allowed me to have an easier time of it in most of my classes."
Liz Murray (Breaking Night):  "Any formal education I received came from the few days I spent in attendance, mixed with knowledge I absorbed from random readings of my or Daddy's ever-growing supply of unreturned library books. And as long as I still showed up steadily the last few weeks of classes to take the standardized tests, I kept squeaking by from grade to grade."
Desmond Tutu: “One of the things I am most grateful to (my father) for is that, contrary to educational principles, he allowed me to read comics. I think that is how I developed my love for English and for reading.” 
Richard Wright: “I wanted to write and I did not even know the English language. I bought English grammars and found them dull. I felt I was getting a better sense of the language from novels than from grammars."

Encouraging FVR:  Read alouds, reading itself, home run books, literature
The major factor: ACCESS! LIBRARIES!

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